Action expresses priorities. – Gandhi


Fertilizers and Soil Quality

Soil can be defined as a mixture of mineral and organic matter that is capable of supporting plant life. Agriculture is a major occupation in countries such as India and Ireland and the quality of agricultural productivity depends upon the quality of soil. With increasing population, use of fertilizers has been widely practiced over the past century to meet the higher food demand. Nitrogen is the only nutrient which is less available for plants and because of this most fertilizer inputs are in the form of nitrogen. Since the major input of fertilizers is in the form of nitrogen, this article will be focusing on its usage and impacts upon soil and environmental quality.

Nitrogen as a fertilizer – why?

It is a known fact that nitrogen constitutes about 78 % in the atmosphere and is required by all organisms (Galloway, 1998). Nitrogen is the nutrient most often applied in the form of a fertilizer because plants require large amounts of nitrogen for growth, but usually a very small proportion is naturally available to them (Tan, 2000).

Although chemical fertilizers are widely used, farmers are not always aware of their consequences.

So what are the consequences?

  • Soil Quality – it affects the soil nutrient levels, microbial community and hence the soil fertility and quality. Fertilizer use has been found to affect the carbon pools in soil, thus causing an imbalance in the soil nutrients.
  • Cost –  it’s expensive for farmers.
  • Contaminates groundwater – Environmental impacts due to the release of NOx (Nitrous oxide and Nitric oxide) emission or leaching in soil which has a potential to contaminate the groundwater. The extent of leaching depends on the soil type. For example, there has been evidence that leaching is less in clay soils as compared to sandy soils. (This must be noted while performing fertilizer application).
  • Contaminates our air – Nitrous oxide (NO2) is a harmful greenhouse gas and hence it is important to control its release from the soil. Nitrogen fertilization influences the natural growth pattern of crops such as barley, tomato and more.
  • Affects plant growth – If the soil nutrient levels are altered, the normal growth pattern of plants or crops have been found to be restricted. Use of fertilizers not only affects the soil organic matter concentration, but also becomes expensive for farmers to apply on their fields.
  • Soil pollution – Research by Atafar et al. (2010) suggested that fertilizer application leads to elevated concentration of heavy metal in the soil such as lead, arsenic and cadmium. The lead and arsenic levels tend to increase more rapidly as compared to those of cadmium. Taylor and Percieval (2001) investigated that heavy metals accumulated in the soil eventually pass on to plants and then animals via the food chain (Atafar et al., 2010). This means that such a produce when consumed by humans, is not of the highest quality.

For the various reasons explained above, reducing the application of chemical fertilizers has been discovered to be more beneficial for the quality of the yield and the environment.

What can be done instead of using fertilizers?

Sward means grassy areas

Sward species are grass species

Studies conducted by the author of this article suggests planting mixed species containing legumes (such as white clover or Trifolium repens) naturally increases the soil nitrogen levels which enables to reduce nitrogen fertilizer inputs. Evidence from other research works suggests that to avoid NOx emissions, incorporating leguminous species such as clovers into agricultural practices can be established.

What are legumes?

Legumes are plants that bare their fruit in pods – common examples include beans, peas and lentils.

Legumes have the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen due to the presence of symbiotic bacteria in their root nodules. When legumes (such as white clover or Trofolium repens) are incorporated into agricultural plots, less nitrogen inputs as fertilizers is required thereby making the farming sustainable. Moreover, it has been found that the presence of legumes, results in a higher yield.

This is one potential solution towards reducing nitrogen fertilizer inputs which would in turn; reduce the various consequences caused by its application.

About the Author:

Antara Chakrabarti

Antara Chakrabarti

Antara Chakrabarti, currently based in Dublin has completed her Masters’ in Applied Environmental Science. Her primary area of research interest revolves around Ecology and matters related to it such as nutrient levels, conservation and urban farming.  In her spare time, she pursues hobbies such as: reading, writing, traveling,  knitting, and playing badminton. She also enjoys spiritual practices, mind training and helping people in whatever way she can.

Atafar, Z, Mesdaghinia, AlirezaNouri, J, Homaee, M, Yunesian, M, Ahmadimoghaddam, M & Mahvi, A.H. (2010). Effect of fertilizer application on soil heavy metal concentration. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 160: 83-90.

Galloway, James N (1998). The global nitrogen cycle: changes and consequences. Environmental Pollution, 102: 15-24.

Chakrabarti, A. (2014). Effect of sward mixture on Total Oxidised Nitrogen (TON) in soil solution. MSc Applied Environmental Science Thesis. University College Dublin.

Tan H.K (2000). Environmental Soil Science 2nd edition, revised and expanded. Chapters 1-8.

Troeh R.F and Thompson M.L (1993). Soils and Soil Fertility. Oxford University Press.



Green Speak with Gorus – An Organic Farmer’s Collective

An interview with Ashwin Paranjpe who is an organic farmer and the founder of Gorus – a farmer’s collective, located outside of Pune in Nanegaon in Kolwan Valley in the Sahyadris. This collective brings small farmers together to sell organically grown, seasonally planned produce to a fixed number of consumers in urban Pune.

Rice Farming Nanegaon

Rice Farming Nanegaon

Tell us a bit about yourself. When and How did the idea of this business come about? How did your team come together? Who/What was the inspiration behind it?

My journey into the field of Community Support and Agriculture(CSA) has been one that has been shaped by many experiences. After completing my Masters in Horticulture in Florida, I worked on an organic farm for 6 months and studied the whole system. Then I travelled to Spain, newly married, I worked for a year in CSA in the Catalonian town of Valls. Thereafter, I also held a research job with the State Government in Barcelona. 

On my return to India, I wanted to implement all that I had seen and learnt in the past few years. My main concern was that when urban sprawl takes over farmland, food production gets more alienated, as do cultural and social spaces. In 2007 we started the CSA network in Pune, with an aim to create a framework that goes beyond monetary exchanges of food, bring farmers together and connect them with families that appreciate where and how their food comes from. This is how Gorus began. In 2008 we expanded to about a core group of 35 farmers spread over four Talukas – Mulshi, Purandar, Shirur and Daund. Our clients (mostly urban families in Pune city) increased from 20 families in 2008 to more than 200 in 2014. Our aim is to encourage farmers to grow food organically and simultaneously create a support group of eco-conscious consumers, so that we can assure the farmers that they will not only receive a stable and fair price throughout the year, but also the goodwill and support of those who buy their food.

What makes you so passionate about the environment?

Once you start farming with your hands, you realize how closely our health is connected to the health of our planet. Through modern agriculture (which uses heavy farm machinery, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and GMOs) man has already destroyed much of the fertile soils, poisoned the groundwater and  polluted the air beyond anybody’s imagination. If we want our lands to remain productive, our water to be pure, and our air to be clean, we need to stop using chemicals in agriculture.

What does the word co-operative mean to you? Can you explain your business model?

Farm visit to meet the Gorus Team

Farm visit to meet the Gorus Team

The co-operative movement that started in the 60s was largely a failure, probably because  the vehicle for the whole movement was political rather than social. The milk and sugar cooperatives are one of the largest of its kind in India, well intentioned but not implemented properly. I would say, Gorus is not a  “cooperative” in the strict sense but a collective of farmers, consumers, and voluntary organizations who work in the farming sector. Farmers are not just suppliers of a commodity, they are ‘annadaatas’.  Farmers and consumers must come together and form a partnership of mutual support, understanding, and respect. We try to create a bond where Gorus becomes a platform to facilitate this process.
The recently organized rice planting activity was one such example where Gorus brings farmers and consumers together. At such events, we also try to increase the consumer’s knowledge about local varieties, organic farming techniques, and the seasonal nature and vulnerability of farming  vis-à-vis the climate, soil fertility, and water availability. We also try to de-mystify some of the concepts of organic farming, by showing simple examples in the farms so that consumers understand the logic and fundamental principles of organic farming rather than getting confused with the huge gamut of terminologies, philosophies, and styles of organic farming that one comes across on the internet or in books.

Why should people support and buy from food co-ops like Gorus?

Co-ops ensure  fair distribution of the consumer’s money. In the conventional market channel, there are usually four players involved when it comes to food distribution – the producer, the aggregator, the wholesaler and the retailer. Co-ops help bring this chain down to two. Also, with the conventional model, farmers do not get their fair share  of the consumer’s rupee. With organic produce, it’s hard to ask farmers to implement better practices without any guarantee of returns.
At Gorus, we have  a thumbrule  that farmers receive a minimum of 50% of the consumer’s rupee, with their share going up to 70-80% in case of grains and non-perishables. Transparency is an essential part of our work and farmers are kept in the loop with our finances. It’s important that we create an atmosphere where our people don’t feel the need to cut corners or feel squeezed. There is also a lot of thought that goes into the way we work – for example, all our packaging is environmentally sensitive, our produce is packaged into biodegradable plastic. Not being formally trained in business management or marketing means that I generally have to work twice as hard to accomplish simple goals which others can accomplish easily. However, the unending support and understanding of consumers and the backing of some very genuine organic farmers, professionals, friends, and of course, my wife and parents, is the reason why Gorus has not only survived for six years, but is slowly gaining more depth and width as an organization.

Is organic certification important? What kind of organic certifications attest your produce? What should customers look out for when they buy organic?

Yes, organic certification is important. I look at organic certification more as a system that commits the farmers to observe self-discipline and remain faithful to the organic principles they have decided to follow for growing food. Of course, it also helps them to distinguish their produce from chemically grown produce, and enables them to get a premium price. On the consumers’ side, certification is important since it gives them at least a basic level of assurance of what they are buying. But by no means should one rely solely on a certificate. I urge consumers to go to the farms, be in frequent touch with farmers, participating in farming and share the responsibility in whichever way they can, rather than just relying on a certificate. Creating personal bonds with farmers also puts a moral pressure on farmers for not cheating.
With Gorus farmers, we use the Participatory Guarantee System (PGS), which is a peer review system for organic certification. In my opinion, PGS certification is more transparent, affordable, and effective than third-party certification. I also appreciate the approach of PGS wherein the farms are ‘appraised’ by peers rather than ‘inspected’ by an inspector. PGS is structured in such a way that exchange of knowledge, techniques, and experiences (between the peers/farmers who do the appraisal and the farmer who gets appraised) is encouraged, thereby improving the capabilities and skills of both. Of course, in PGS there is no room for those who break the rules and punishment for doing so is strict and decisive. In terms of organic norms, PGS follows the same norms as most of the internationally accepted protocols for organic farming, but in addition, PGS incorporates principles of biodiversity conservation and environmental stewardship as integral parts of the organic farming system, which are often missing in other protocols. PGS is officially recognized and promoted by IFOAM, especially for farmers or co-ops whose produce is not intended for export and is sold locally.

Co-operative enterprises achieve sustainable development for all – is the theme for this year’s International Co-operatives Day. Could you elaborate on this and share your own personal experience?

True co-operation between stakeholders is often lacking (if not totally absent) in Indian co-operatives in the agricultural sector.  In my view, co-operatives would run better if they were a-political, and the decision makers truly and sincerely represent the producers’ as well as the consumers’ best interests. Perhaps this is why Gorus has evolved into a hybrid between a co-operative and an ethical commerce enterprise. It is registered as a not-for-profit Company u/s 25 of the Companies Act, 1956 with no share capital. Although Gorus has achieved modest economic goals, it has grown and adapted organically, and most of its achievements are in terms of consumers’ goodwill, farmers’ support, and in establishing very close working relationships with several other social enterprises across five states in India.

Share with us one environmental tip that always stays with you – an environmental tip that others can also inculcate into their lives.

I would like to set a challenge to urban families – grow one meal yourself….it will help you to understand, appreciate, and enjoy farming, and forever change the way you look at food!

An interview by Aditi Bhonagiri – a communication specialist who has worked in the field of immigration policy and current affairs. She is currently pursuing a Masters in Development Studies and is interested in sustainable development in the South Asian region.


Green Ganesh OK Please

Rivers of India have always played a major role in our history and civilization. They have been worshiped in our ancient scriptures, and have been named after gods, goddesses or saints. Ironically, those same rivers are severely polluted by us - either in the form of industrial contaminants, domestic sewage, or as a result of  festivities – one example being Ganesh Chathurthi.  This article discusses the environmental impact of this festival and offers some simple alternatives to celebrate it in a more sustainable manner.

What’s the impact?


Just before the festival begins, life-like clay idols of Lord Ganesh are made my special artisans in sizes that vary from an inch to over 25 feet. These idols are adorned with paint, decorated with flowers, and then worshiped for 10 days, either at a home or at mandappas (temporary structures constructed in a suburb). On the final day of the festival, thousands of devotees immerse their idols into water bodies.

There was a time when these clay models were all made using earthern or natural clay (shaadu maati). However, with commercialization, the clay models are now being made using tin-foil, silver, thermocol and/or Plaster of Paris – an inexpensive, easy-to-mould material made from sulphur, phosphorus, gypsum, and magnesium.  These Plaster of Paris Ganesh’s when immersed in water, take a longer time to dissolve and release the above-mentioned toxic chemicals into the water body. Furthermore, the paints used to decorate the models are chemical-based, releasing heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury into the water. More often

than not, thermocol, plastic and other non-biodegradable materials that are used to decorate these idols, also make their

More Pollution

More Pollution

way into the water bodies. There are no surprises on the day after the immersion when you see pollution and direct impact on the surface of our ‘holy’ water bodies. Lakes, streams, rivers and the ocean are not the only silent sufferers. Litter of plastic, flowers and thermocol are also found scattered on the streets, waiting to be picked up by civic authorities.

Top 7 Eco-Friendly Ways to Celebrate Ganesh Chathurthi:

1. Buy natural clay idols

Call 8888 847322 to order

Call 8888 847322 to order

Help bring back the old tradition by buying or asking shop-owners for natural clay idols that are painted with natural colours (organic or vegetable dyes). We sell natural clay and paper mache idols made by a growing network of sculptors from various part of India and by mentally and physically challenged youth and adults. This project helps them all earn an income. To order, contact us +91 88888 47322 or email us on support at greenokplease dot com. Click here for further information on the idol types and sizes.

2.  Other materials

Idols can also be made out of other biodegradable materials such as paper-mache. Click here to see how it can be done.

3. Decorations

For decorations, say no to thermocol, plastic and other non-biodegradable materials. If they don’t end up in the water bodies, they lie in landfills for hundreds of years. Instead, use wood, paper, cloth and other natural materials for decorations. You can buy eco-friendly decorations from us too.

Also, offerings of flowers could be collected and placed in a compost pit. They would be a natural fertilizer for your garden. If you must immerse them, use newspapers to wrap them instead of plastic bags.

4. Immerse your natural clay idol in a bucket of water at home or in a tank. Reuse the water for plants.

This alternative is being adopted more commonly now especially since several cities now ban immersing idols in natural water bodies.

5. A symbolic immersion

Lord Ganesh in Metal

Lord Ganesh in Metal

Some people use a stone or metal idol. A symbolic immersion is carried out – you could even carry it in procession to the sea, hold it in water and then bring it back home. Or you could immerse a ‘betel nut’ which symbolises the idol and reuse the same idol every year.

6. If you already have a plaster idol, simply sprinkle a few drops on it as a symbolic immersion. Then repaint and re-use it every year.

7. Volume Kam Kar

Song and dance are an integral part of the celebrations. However, ear-splitting decibels are not only disturbing but are also a major health hazard.

Moderation is the key to ensuring a safe, happy and healthy Ganesh Chaturthi. Happy Green Ganesh Chaturthi everyone!


Sustainable Menstruation – a way forward

‘The Yellow Bag Campaign,’ is an excellent initiative started by three young professionals, Rajlaxmi Teli, Sneha Malani and Purva Sankala, in collaboration with local NGO, SWaCH. Their project aims to streamline the waste segregation mechanism for sanitary waste disposal in Pune. Operating since 2007, SWaCh, a co-operative for waste pickers from low income backgrounds, provide door-to-door waste collection and management services in the city. Their focus lies on improving the livelihoods of our waste collectors, ensuring their safety and restoring a sense of dignity in their lives.

Yellow Bag Campaign

Yellow Bag Campaign

Waste pickers at SWaCH deal with all household waste including soiled Sanitary towels, napkins and diapers. Pune, alone, generates an astonishing figure – one crore napkins per month on an average. Unfortunately, most disposable sanitary products are non-biodegradable and hence, used feminine hygiene products and disposable diapers are fast becoming a biohazard.
This video here takes you through a day in the life of a waste picker – documented by Rajlaxmi Teli.

Ms Malani puts the problem into perspective, “if I calculate my sanitary waste footprint – say I started my period when I was 13 and now I’m 25, so for the last 12 years I have consumed 12×12 (months) x 12 (napkins) = 1728 napkins which can be seen as a huge pile in a gigantic landfill. And this is just MY contribution.”

“With the addition of blood or faeces,” writes Kyra’s Preethi Sukumaran, “used disposables become dangerous for a city corporation to deal with. They cannot be humanely handled by garbage collectors; they contain a cocktail of materials including cotton, a super absorbent polymer, and a whole lot of plastic.” (15 July 2014, The Alternative). Click here for a video on sorting waste documented by Rajlaxmi Teli.

Yellow Newspaper Bags

Yellow Newspaper Bags

So here’s where ‘The Yellow Bag Campaign’ steps in. This campaign aims to inform the citizens of Pune about the SWaCH disposable bags (ST Dispo bags) which are made of recycled newspaper with an identifiable yellow label and a string to allow them to be secured. “At the point of segregation the bags containing the soiled napkins would go into the wet waste – since the dry waste goes directly to the scrap dealers. If a residential society is composting all their wet waste, the dispo bags would directly go into the municipal vehicle to the landfill.” 

“The bag is a sensible way to keep wastepickers (and other stake holders) from direct contact to the soiled napkins. This is part of a larger project on sustainable menstruation. We’re learning about it as we proceed, there’s a sizeable SM movement in our country. We hope to create awareness through public participation. While we to put it crudely our just doing the ‘marketing’ – the real force behind Pune’s waste is KKPKP and SWACH. We wish to see more involvement and support in Pune’s waste movement,” says Ms Malani.

On the availability and purpose of the bags, she continues, “we are hoping to make the sale of these bags feasible at a variety of different outlets including medical stores. The bags are made by older wastepickers and are sold at Re.1/- per bag. Each bag can be used to dispose 2-3 napkins. You are thus contributing to the livelihood of the waste pickers. As the bags ensure that the ‘soiled napkin’ is wrapped up and not visible and exposed to flies and rodents, it protects the waste pickers from health hazards and also ensures dignity in handling while disposing.”

Talking about the issues pertaining to menstruation and sensitising masses about the extent of the problem remains key to finding plausible solutions. On Saturday, 9 August 2014, SWaCH will be hosting a participatory event at Pagdandi Books and Chai Cafe in Baner, Pune for anyone interested to join the ongoing conversation on menstruation, disposal and taboos, engage with waste pickers from the vicinity.

9th August, 4pm-5pm @ Pagdandi Cafe, Baner

9th August, 4pm-5pm @ Pagdandi Cafe, Baner

Ms Teli has written a great piece about the human cost of waste picking and the dire need for more sorting sheds for segregation. (Click here to read) “We as a city need to pitch our voices into waste processes, problems and solutions beginning with segregating at source i.e. in our own homes. We need to provide further co-operation to the cooperative of waste-pickers,” she writes.

So how can one get involved and further their cause?
“Come attend the event this Saturday, spread the word, buy the bags, ensure its regular use in your vicinity and use your freedom to dispose sensibly!” says Ms Malani.

Green OK Please extends it whole hearted support and encouragement to SWaCH’s cause and would also like to raise a toast to Rajlaxmi, Sneha and Purva – it’s extremely refreshing to see Pune’s young guns spearhead a campaign that will possibly further the creation of a robust recycling framework in the city.

 We will be selling these bags on our website very soon!

An interview by Aditi Bhonagiri – a communication specialist who has worked in the field of immigration policy and current affairs. She is currently pursuing a Masters in Development Studies and is interested in sustainable development in the South Asian region.







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My Dog Comes with Papers

A very dear uncle recently proclaimed proudly to me that his new Beagle puppy came complete with papers certifying how purely bred it was. He was disappointed to see my luke-warm response, and couldn’t understand why I answered, “That doesn’t really mean much!” The conversation got me thinking. My well-meaning uncle clearly loves his little dog, and felt that these papers of pure breeding gave him an assurance of sorts, that his pet was of fine quality. I so badly wanted to explain to him that the papers meant nothing of the sort, at the same time, I didn’t want to deflate his pride and happiness in the new addition to his family. I decided to make this the aim of my next article- to simply create awareness of what a pure-breed dog really is, explore the origins and history of the whole spectacle of creating dog breeds, and empower Indian dog-owners to understand what it really means when they decide to buy an expensive pooch that comes complete with papers.

Firstly, let us re-visit some very basic facts of genetics that you probably studied in high-school biology.

NATURE: We know that Charles Darwin discovered that nature had a wonderful way of selecting and promoting specific traits, which made a species healthier and stronger. For example in cold climates, animals born with thick coats produced more animals with thick coats, and a “thick coat” became an established trait that helped these animals thrive in cold climes. Animals that happened to be born without thick coats quickly died off, and hence the trait of a “thin coat” disappeared completely.

SCIENCE: Another term used in genetics, that may ring a vague bell is “hybrid vigour”. In simple terms, this means that when animals that are completely unrelated to each other mate, the result is that they produce healthier and healthier off-spring. When related animals (for example a brother and sister) mate, they produce weaker and unhealthy off-spring.

History of Dog Breeds

Keeping what Nature and Science had in mind for the progression and evolution of all living species, let us explore how we’ve interfered with this process. From the time that we humans started domesticating animals, we started deliberately mating dogs that had desirable traits, so that more dogs with those traits would be produced. We did this for thousands of years, creating all kinds of dog breeds that served specific purposes- hunting, rescuing, shepherding, etc. As our relationship and need for dogs changed over the years, so did the traits we considered “desirable”.  Lets look at a couple of examples:

The German Shepherd Dog

A dog resembling the original German Shepherd breed

A dog resembling the original German Shepherd breed

One of the more extreme examples is that of the German Shepherd dog. The breed was developed less than 200 years ago in Germany for herding sheep. At the time intelligence, agility, strength and obedience were what defined the best bred dogs. In recent years, “Kennel Clubs” have sprung up in almost all countries around the world. They are essentially a central register for pure-breeds, and a certificate of belonging to a Kennel Club adds credence to the purity of a breed.

In contrast to the original requirements of the German Shepherd breed, below are excerpts for the “breed standard” for the German Shepherd by The Kennel Club (UK) today: “Length measured from point of shoulder to point of buttock, slightly exceeding height at withers. Correct ratio 10 to 9 or 8 and a half. Undersized dogs, stunted growth, high-legged dogs, those too heavy or too light in build, over-loaded fronts, too short overall appearance, any feature detracting from reach or endurance of gait, undesirable. Chest deep (45-48 per cent) of height at shoulder, not too broad, brisket long, well-developed.”

Today’s “show-quality” German Shepherd with the desirable extreme sloping back

Today’s “show-quality” German Shepherd with the desirable extreme sloping back

Only a dog that complies with these types of specifications can be registered as a purely bred dog with the Kennel Club.

The Pug

The Pug is the most extreme example of what are called “brachycephalic” dogs.

A Brachycephalic skull- as desired Breed Standards

A Brachycephalic skull- as desired Breed Standards

Other examples are Boxers and Bull Dogs. Here the breed standard demands that the entire skull area has a “squashed” appearance. To quote the Kennel Club (UK): “The head and skull should be relatively large and in proportion to body, round, not apple-headed, with no indentation of skull. The muzzle should be relatively short, blunt, square, not upfaced. Nose black, fairly large with well open nostrils. Wrinkles on forehead clearly defined with exaggeration.”

The Process of Getting the “Purest” Breed

Well, if I was a breeder and wanted to breed dogs that would win the most prizes, sell for the most money and hence earn myself the best reputation, what would I do? The very thing which Science and Nature are programmed to NOT do! I would keep the gene-pool small (hence a certain amount of in-breeding is necessary) and keep breeding pure-breed dogs with other pure-breed dogs.

What you get is hundreds of generations of Cocker Spaniels mating with Cocker Spaniels- longer and longer ears; Daschunds mating with other Daschunds- longer and longer backs, Pugs mating with Pugs- shorter and shorter snouts. In short, purer and purer breeds!

What are we actually doing to our dogs?

The first thing we are doing is removing the very valuable hybrid vigour that comes from cross-breeding. By restricting the gene-pool we are encouraging more homozygosity (less genetic diversity) and more health problems. Think of what in-breeding practices have resulted in, in certain human populations that have historically done this over generations.

The second thing we are doing is selecting for traits with little regard to the actual effect these have on the animals. If a human was born with the small skull size of a Cavalier King Charles Spaniel so much so that the brain literally gets crushed, or if a human experienced a life-time of wheezing from breathing difficulty as does a pug, a dozen surgeries would be performed to correct these defects. In the case of these dogs, these “defects” are deliberately introduced to meet breed standards, and are considered not only normal, but desirable! The list goes on.

  • Chronic ear infections in Cocker Spaniels due to abnormally long ears
  • A life-time of skin infections due to excessive wrinkles in the Shar-pei, the Pug and the Boxer
  • Perpetual eye problems due to small skulls and bulging eyes in the Pug and the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel
  • Arthritis and Hip Dysplasia in fast growing, large breeds like Labradors, Great Danes and Rottweilers
  • Anal tumours and Hip Dysplasia due to sloping backs of German Shepherds
  • Painful Spondylitis and Paralysis in long-backed dogs like Dachshund

A third effect of pure-breeding is the inadvertent selection of unwanted traits, while trying to select for desirable traits. For example:

  • The ridge on the Rhodesian Ridgeback is linked with a condition called Dermoid
  • Meeting with the specific breed standards for English Cocker Spaniels has lead to increased aggressive nature
  • Collie Eye Anomaly has been shown to affect 80-90% of dogs classified as “Collies”

Of course not all pure-breeds are sick or diseased, but several studies conducted around the world have shown that pure-breed dog owners consistently face higher veterinary bills than owners of crossbreeds.

So, where does all this information leave us?
The purer the breed -> the better its papers, prizes and reputation -> the more in-bred it is.

Much research and scientific study is being done on modifying breed standards of Kennel Clubs, on genetic testing to weed out harmful genes, and on responsible breeding that contains a certain amount of out-breeding and cross-breeding. However, for the reader as a potential dog owner, the first step is to really understand what it means when someone proudly proclaims that their very purely bred, expensive pet dog comes complete with papers! The aim of this article is not to condemn Kennel Clubs, Dog Shows, or breeders. It is simply to demonstrate the extremes that the “pure-breed” culture has taken us to. We need to take a step back and re-assess what we really want. Is our primary aim to own happy healthy dogs, or cute/exotic/long-eared/giant-sized/miniature/wrinkled dogs? Remember, as nature very cleverly programmed it to be so- the healthiest, happiest and hardiest dog is the one that is least pure-bred. A non- purebred does not necessarily mean a mongrel from the street. It simply means a dog that has not been deliberately bred to meet breed-standards defined by a Club that certifies its purity!

About the writer of this article
Uttara Kennedy grew up in India, subsequently obtaining her degree in Veterinary Science in Queensland, Australia. She worked as a small animal veterinarian for 6 years in Australia, during which she also successfully completed the Membership examination with the Australian College of Veterinary Scientists in the Animal Welfare stream. She was newsletter editor for the Melbourne branch of the Australian Veterinary Association, in which she introduced a special feature “On Animal Welfare”.

Uttara moved back to India 5 years ago, and worked for two years in a small animal practice in suburban Mumbai. She is currently studying online to complete a Masters in Animal Welfare, Ethics and Law with the University of Edinburgh. Her work and study have given her great insight into the practical and ethical aspects of animal welfare.



1. (Breeding and Welfare in Companion Animals:
The Companion Animal Working Group Report on Welfare Aspects of
Modifications, through Selective Breeding or Biotechnological Methods, to the Form, Function, or Behaviour of Companion Animals
Published by the Companion Animal Welfare Council May 2006)


3. “Pedigree Dog Breeding in the UK: a major welfare concern?”- An independent Scientific Report commissioned by the RSPCA

4. Course Notes: International Animal Welfare, Ethics and Law: Companion Animals, By Dr. Jenna Kiddie, Paws for Change.

5. Photos of German Shepherds taken from Wikipedia (German Shepherd)


Green Speak with One-O-Eight Cafe

Bree Bhosale – owner of One-O-Eight Cafe in Lane 6, Koregaon Park, Pune tell us about buying local and eating healthy. “At the end of the day, I just want people to come feel at home, relax and let go and leave feeling light and happy!” This is exactly how we felt- a must visit cafe in Pune!

One-O-Eight Cafe

One-O-Eight Cafe Lane 6, Koregaon Park, Pune

Tell us a bit about your journey to India and the organic lifestyle you follow? What was your inspiration?
I always had a fascination with India and knew one day I would visit. My first journey to India was 10 years ago and it blew my mind – I experienced very intense culture shock as I landed in Mumbai and then headed to a hill station in the south to learn about Ayurveda massage and medicine, I feel in love – with the people and the place and then sometimes it drove me mad too! Then 4 years ago I had the privilege of meeting my now husband who at the time lived in Melbourne. Pune is his home town and thus why we have chosen this as home. 
For more than half of my working life I have worked in the hospitably sector being exposed to all types of foods, cafe’s and events around the world. I got a job working in a vegan & organic cafe when I was about 19 and this was my first education of organic foods and how it doesn’t just support us and our body but the earth too. That was my first introduction to eating clean. Our lifestyle in Sydney is all about being outside, so we would go to farmer’s market where there would be organic produce and the farmers that grew it would sell it and that was how we shopped – I loved it! I’m not so into supermarkets….IMG_9884

Why did you decide to open one-o-eight? What’s your business story? And what makes one-o-eight cafe different from other cafes in Pune? 
Interestingly I had always wanted to open a cafe….I just kinda forgot, until I started telling my friends our plans and they all started to remind me! 
After Rajan and I got married we just got clear on what we wanted to do with our life and how we wanted to spend our time. We both wanted to do something together and we wanted to spend time in Pune with Rajan’s family and I really wanted a cafe and yoga studio, a space where I could teach Art of Living courses. It’s for selfish reasons!!  Good food, coffee and yoga classes all at my finger tips! All my favourite things. I think initially it was going to be more my thing, but I like how Rajan became more involved than expected because we make a really great team and we both contribute something different. It’s been fun working together and I love all the people we meet in the cafe. It feels like home.
I think what makes us different is the exceptional coffee and the balanced menu. When I say balanced, I feel there is something for everyone on our menu from super healthy to not as healthy…but we don’t put anything weird in the food….no additives, no preservatives no white sauce in pasta…we make cakes n biscuits eggless, we do some raw foods and some not. At the end of the day, I just want people to come feel at home, relax and let go and leave feeling light and happy! 
What does the term organic mean to you? What essential ingredients do you insist on using organic at your cafe? And why? 
Organic means no pesticides or herbicides have been used in the growing of that particular vegetable, fruit or ingredient and it’s in it’s natural state – gmo free.
Organic milk n cheese products, sugar, olive oil, coconut oil all the lentils and flours. I just want to use food in it’s most original form and that it doesn’t got through any kind of processing. Our intention is to become 100% organic in time.
What according to you is the importance of buying local produce?
I want to see the community and economy in which I live flourish and that can only happen if you support your neighbours & country in which you live. India produces such amazing fruits, flowers, vegetables, spices but some of them you can’t even buy because it all goes into export! It’s all very interesting. It confuses me to eat an apple from Chile that has had a long journey to make it on my plate, from picking to packing to flying (and what products do they use to keep it looking so fresh?!) when I could get one that has been grown in the same soil in which I walk?! I enjoy the relationships buying local develops.
Share with us one tip/mantra that you live by to stay healthy and environmentally conscientious?

Bree Bhosle

Bree Bhosale

Be happy. If you are happy then you make the best choices for yourself and those around you. 

Your top three favourite organic recipes at One-O-Eight cafe that our readers should come and try. Go ahead tempt us!
I love our Ragi Cookie, I’m always amazed by how tasty and healthy it is! 
The raw snickers as its the most delicious little cup of heaven. Think of a snickers bar, but smaller and without the guilt! 
Bowl of Goodness uses no oil and has organic sprouted lentil’s with steam and raw vegetables. I could go on….but I will leave it there! 

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Vegetable Barley Soup

Barley is a high-fiber food. Blend it with lentils and vegetables for a big dose of nutrients. Enjoy this soup with some multi-grain bread and it becomes a very satisfying and tasty meal.

Preparation time: 10 minutes
Cooking time: 30 minutes
Serves 4


Barley Vegetable Soup with Seasame Tortilla chips or flatbread.

Barley Vegetable Soup with Seasame Tortilla chips or flatbread.

2 tablespoons pearl barley, soaked for 3-4 hours
2 tablespoons whole red lentils
1 medium onion, chopped
1 teaspoon garlic paste
¼ cup carrot, cut into half-inch cubes
2 medium tomatoes, chopped
1 cup spring onions, chopped with the greens
½ teaspoon cumin powder
½ teaspoon red chili flakes
2 tablespoons cilantro (coriander), chopped
Salt and pepper to taste

1. Drain the soaked barley and keep aside.
2. Take a deep heated saucepan and sauté the onion for 2 minutes.
3. Add the garlic, sauté for a minute and add the barley, red lentils, carrot and salt.
4. Let it cook on low to medium heat for about 20 minutes.
5. Now add the tomato, spring onion, cumin, cilantro and pepper and bring to a boil.
6. Sprinkle the red chili flakes on top or in individual soup bowls.

About the Author:  

Madhavi Vaidya

Madhavi Vaidya

Madhavi Vaidya is a biochemist by education, a yoga practitioner by interest, a golfer by passion, an exercise freak by compulsion, a gardener by hobby and a self-appointed Chef by choice. She have been living in Wooster, Ohio for 3 years now and have discovered how much she loves cooking. Her book “Food For The Heart” will be launched this Sunday at the Poona Farmers Markets at 1:30pm.


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